Kidney Stones (Kidney and ureteric stones) are the hard mineral deposits which develop when the urine becomes too concentrated and forms into crystals, these crystals stick together and become stones that vary in size.

Kidney Stones are made up of calcium, Uric acid or Oxalate. The smaller crystals are usually carried out of the kidney by urine through the urinary tract, if the crystals are large they get stuck in the ureter this is called as Ureteric Stones.

Kidney stones and Ureteric stones cause severe pain, Blood in urine, Nausea, Vomiting with fever. If this happens your doctor will recommend some measures such as blood test imaging studies to rule out kidney functions. If the infection is high and stones are big and blocking the urine, the doctor will use surgical interventions to treat Kidney and Ureteric stones.


Medical interventions:
Pain is the abrupt symptom your physician will manage pain and dehydration by intravenous fluid, prophylactic antibiotics will be started to reduce the risk of infection.

Medical expulsion therapy: This therapy facilitates the spontaneous passage of small ureteral stones through the Urinary Tract and its used adjunct to other treatment modalities.

Surgical interventions:

RIRS ( Retrograde intrarenal surgery): RIRS is a procedure performed by a specialist under general anesthesia, by using a fiberoptic endoscope inserted via the urethra and the stones are viewed and manipulated then fragmented by the laser and cleared from the kidney.

PCNL (Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy): PCNL is an invasive procedure performed under general anesthesia, the urologist inserts an cystoscope to inspect the bladder, after inspecting the bladder a catheter is inserted via ureter to the kidney by which a radio-opaque dye is administered to highlight the kidney stone on an X-Ray, once the stones are located an incision of 1.5 cm is made on the back, then the urologist will access the kidney with X-Ray guided fine needle then the guide wire will help the urologist to create a passage to kidney, through the passage a hollow tube is inserted, then a nephroscope is inserted through the hollow tube targeting the stones, then stones and fragments are removed by the scope using suction.
ESWL (Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy): ESWL is a common non surgical treatment for Kidney Stones or Ureteric stones by using shock waves from outside the body causing the stones to break into pieces or fragments, small enough to pass out in urine.