Fistula is abnormal opening between two tubular organs. Females generate fistula in urinary and reproductive tract such as-

Vesico vaginal fistula: abnormal opening between vagina and bladder.

Uretero vaginal fistula: abnormal opening between the vagina and the ureter.

Urethro vaginal fistula: abnormal opening between the vagina and the urethra.

These fistulas are the result of trauma, pelvic surgery, infection or inflammatory bowel disease. This occurs during childbirth when the labour is long and protracted.

The fistulas usually lead to constant leakage of urine and stool from the vagina, irritation in female genital organs; frequent UTI’s and other symptoms include vomiting diarrhea and abdominal pain.


Non Invasive Measures:

Fibrin glue: a medicinal adhesive glue used to seal the fistulas.

Plug: collagen matrix to fill the fistula.

Catheters: to drain the fistula in order to prevent infection.

Surgical Management
Trans abdominal surgery: Fistulas are treated by making an opening into the abdominal wall and fistulas are sealed.

Laparoscopic surgery: Using the camera and small tools inserted to repair the fistulas.